Winter, 1838


4342F03A-36F6-473A-A74B-660D7F057B17_1_105_cWinter at Trimley Shore.  (2018)

List of persons who have received coals, by a subscription raised in the parish…”

A seemingly drab  but name-rich document entitled: ‘List of persons who have received coals, by a subscription raised in the parish in addition to rent received of Abraham Cook, with list of subscribers[1]’ may be found in The Hold, Ipswich.  It comprises four lists totalling sixty four Trimley St. Martin names,  some of which  are illegible and with at least five people crossed out. A fifth, shorter list on the same paper is headed ‘List of people not allowed.’  (Transcriptions have been appended to this document.) Those with longstanding connections to the village will recognise  names on the lists, several of which are still extant in the Felixstowe area and some of the surnames may be found on the War Memorial in the two churches.  The document was examined in conjunction with the Trimley St. Martin Tithe Map of 1840, the 1841 Census,  the Parish Registers of Trimley St. Martin and Trimley St. Mary and the Carlford and Colneis Poor House Register [1a].  It provides a small insight into how needy labourers and their families were supported locally  during the harsh winter of 1838.

IMG_1431 Winter. Sleighton Hill. (2018)

The Digested Read

The document provides evidence of how the Poor of Trimley St. Martin were treated outside of the Workhouse, albeit for just one or two years.  Abraham Cook was the man who farmed the Poors Land for which he paid an annual rental. The  extensive list of recipients  and subscribers demonstrates how working families were treated in the early 19th century. The relevance of the Subscribers has been described and their place in the village hierarchy. The final section of ‘The Longer Read’  relates to possible 21st century provision for those who may be affected by the current crises surrounding energy and the cost of living.

The much longer read.

A background to the1830s :  decade of changes.

For the majority of its history, the working population of Trimley St. Martin and the surrounding villages was comprised mainly of Agricultural Labourers. Samuel Lewis in his “Topographical Dictionary of England”[2] noted that farming  provided the majority of all employment and stated the village comprised about two thousand acres and those of Trimley St. Mary eighteen hundred and twenty three acres.


Agricultural work started at an early age. It might be supposed this was confined entirely to men but in a rural economy all the family contributed to their own  sustenance and survival. Until 1860 when legislation was introduced to prevent the employment of children on the land, many young people may have started their agricultural working life as  bird scarers or stone pickers; seven or eight would not have been too young.  Even the advent of Forster’s Education Act did not make education compulsory until 1880. And when it comes to labouring, let’s not forget the wide ranging and labourious domestic duties of the women. Their domestic duties where man and onerous but at certain times of the year they would also  turn to such whole scale efforts during  harvest time. The eighteen thirties saw many changes, all of which impacted on the ordinary labouring men and their families. Over-arching all of the implications outlined below was the existence of the pernicious Corn Laws which penalised the labouring classes and Tenant Farmers to the benefit of the Landowners. Prices were kept artificially high for the benefit of Farmers but not for the people who worked on the land.

To help contextualise the document re ‘The Poor…” here is  a reminder of a few major events and legislation which took place between 1830 and 1840.

Cholera. In 1831, the first case of Asiatic Cholera was identified in Sunderland. This disease became a deadly scourge in England, principally in urban areas. It was thought to be airborne and in 1851 John Snow was the first to opine cholera was caused  when water become contaminated by sewage. Concern mounted quickly at the deadly nature of the illness and on 21 October 1831 instructions on  what to do should an area become affected  were published in ‘The London Gazette’:

   “All…communication with any infected town, and the neighbouring country,  must be    prevented by the best means within the power of the Magistrates, who will have to make    regulations for the supply of provisions…it is most important to guard against the  spreading of the infection.”[3]

Urban areas were those most  affected and there are few if any examples of outbreaks recorded in rural Suffolk.

The Reform Act of 1832. Fifty six boroughs were disenfranchised including, Aldeburgh, Dunwich, Orford. These towns, especially Dunwich had reduced in importance, not least because so much of it had been taken by the sea.  The Act also clearly  defined a ‘voter’ as a male person.

The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833[4] saw all slavery across the British Colonies abolished and compensation paid to all former owners. But not to the Slaves.

9F23BE7A-8AEF-4090-80CA-180D573A8860The Workhouse Act[5] of 1834 amended and replaced the old Poor Law creating a punitive system which was delivered in an exacting and unforgiving manner. It may be regarded as the one Act which most affected the poor with its punitive approach to those who depended on additional support.   One of the intentions was to minimise the ‘burden’ to rate payers but throughout the 19th century the new Workhouse Unions were still dependent upon local rates. They operated on the understanding that a harsh environment would discourage the feckless Poor from falling upon the public purse. The Poor were treated as though it were their fault they had become impoverished   through non-engagement in meaningful work. It was not until much later in the 19th Century recognition of external forces on economic conditions started to be recognised. The Commissioner’s report also emphasised the belief, “… that the deserving and the undeserving poor could be distinguished by a simple test: anyone prepared to accept relief in the repellent workhouse must be lacking the moral determination to survive outside it.”[6]  The Workhouses, chilling dispensers of charity , were finally replaced following the introduction of The Local Government Act of 1929[7].

Poor Law

Perhaps the best exposé of the Poor Law/Workhouse system was delivered in Charles Dickens’ novel, ‘Oliver Twist’.  Originally published   in a serialised format between 1837 and 1839, the first edition of the book was published in  1838.  It was instrumental in awakening  people to  the cruelty and harshness of the old Poor House system, which continued in more draconian form in the Workhouse. Perhaps the best know episode is the famous and iconic scene were Oliver asked the Master of the Poor House, ‘Please Sir, I want have some more’.

ot2b 2

Oliver Twist. Illustration by George Cruickshank. (1838)

The Tithe Act of 1836  removed the payment of Tithes in kind, that is, a tenth of land produce given to the Rector. Instead, the Rector received monetary payments from those who were producers. In 1840, a Tithe Map for the village of Trimley St. Martin was drawn and the sums of money payable were recorded in the Apportionment Book.  Although never intended for mass public consumption, the maps provide invaluable snapshots of Landowners, Land Holders and Tenants and their possible relationships.




Death of the Monarch. In 1837, William IV, died.  The young Queen Victoria immediately became the new monarch on 20th June 1837 and so began the Victorian Era. Her coronation took place 28th June 1838.

Civil RegistrationA scant eleven days Victoria’s ascension to the throne, ‘The Registration Act’ of 1836 came into effect in England and Wales on 1st July 1837. Individuals were afforded proof of their personal identity through certificates. Proof of birth was no longer dependent on the Parish incumbent recording the baptisms, marriages and burials of his parish. Civil registration was open to all religious denominations and ‘all were equally bound to attend to it.’[8]  Any person could obtain copies of the certificate  for 3/6d. It might be considered as proof of citizenship, I suppose. Important then in Great Britain and arguably even more important in the  twenty first century United Kingdom.


From: The London Courier and Evening Gazette. 27th September 1837


It is perhaps also valid to recall this was the decade when the Tolpuddle Martyrs were arrested, transported and pardoned for swearing an ‘unlawful’ oath to support one other; effectively the foundations of a Trades Union. [8a]


It is against the backdrop of some of this legislation  the document  ‘A List of persons who have received coals, by a subscription raised in the parish’ was considered.

42BB9B4A-F69C-4941-9BA1-F255291A9653_1_105_cLocation of The Poors Land between The Lilacs and the A14  in Trimley St. Martin. Courtesy of Google Maps. (2022)

Background to the necessity for local charity provision by the  Poors Land  charity

The 1805 Inclosure Act for Trimley St. Martin, which was enacted in 1807 made provision for the Poor of the parish[9]  by putting to one side land equalling four acres, two roods and twelve perches. It was to be rented out and the monies raised were to  be spent on coals or other fuel for the Poor of the Parish. This was not an unusual provision as it was a form of compensation  for the enclosure of the Heath or Common land which lay in  the north west of the village. Whins (i.e. furze or gorse) had been a standard fuel source from Trimley Heath or Common,  prior to Enclosure.  Coal as an effective form of heating had grown throughout the  eighteenth century but was not as economical as furze, which had been free.  In many villages the expected extent of Poor Land was frequently about an acre; land in excess of this would have appeared  more than fair.  Access to trees or any timber was out of the question as all timber belonged to the Lord of the Manor and unauthorised removal was theft. Several incidents of attempted tree-felling  occurred  in the eighteen thirties and ended badly for the all those involved.

One offender was not included on the ‘List…’ but it may be this is because he was probably living in  Trimley St. Mary  at the time and therefore not eligible for Trimley St. Martin’s Poors Land charity. Isaac Giles had cut down and removed part of a  young ash in 1830. The Lord of the Manor or rather, his Attorneys, had no hesitation in prosecuting and the result was a penalty of £4 plus costs and two months in  Ipswich Gaol doing Hard Labour.

Screenshot 2022-12-13 at 17.59.11
From: The Suffolk Chronicle. 1st May 1830.

The second example below is John Ellis of Trimley St. Martin. His start in life had not been a good one. He  appears to have found it difficult to escape the poverty trap; a victim of ‘poverty begats poverty’. At the age of four he was placed in the old Poor House in October 1801,  being discharged in 1802. He returned again on 5th October 1809 and was subsequently discharged into an apprenticeship in October 1810. In December 1830 he attempted to part fell an Elm tree, presumably as a source of fuel and heat  and was fined £3. Lacking the necessary money to pay the fine he was instead sentenced to two calendar months hard labour.  This latter case occurred in December and  his absence  from his home effectively punished  his entire to family. No income, no heat, no fuel. (In 1841, his family comprised his wife and five children.)

Screenshot 2022-12-13 at 18.09.07.jpeg

From: The Suffolk Chronicle.  23rd December 1830

Poors Land and Abraham Cook

For most of the first half of the nineteenth century, one Abraham Cook was the man who rented the Poors Land until his death in 1851. In addition to farming this piece of land he occupied other parcels of land; three in Kirton and a further seven in Trimley St. Martin. Most of those in Trimley St. Martin cluster around what is now known as Mill Lane.  All of the plots have now been built upon with one exception. Or perhaps more correctly two contiguous plots in Trimley St. Martin, one named Kempland, remain undeveloped in 2022. (Kempland is probably an area previously know as Hempland in 1795 and before then, Saggards.)  They lie south west of the railway line, outside the village envelope at the junction where Grimston Lane divides towards Grimston Hall in one direction and Alston Hall in the other.  As a land  owner and occupier, he was in a better position than the village  agricultural labourers  who had to work for others.


Screenshot 2022-12-11 at 14.21.04

Open Street Map[10],  showing the location of ‘Kempland’ occupied by Abraham Cook in 1840. ( Map 2022)

B0B2E51D-0BC2-4067-82B5-BBF76E3253A9_1_105_c The area owned by Abraham Cook, known as ‘Kempland’ on the  1840 Tithe Map for   Trimley St. Martin. At the junction of  Grimston Lane leading to Alston Hall.  (November 2022)

A355A9C2-03C7-48AD-8B5A-AAA2F504AF45_1_105_c  ‘Kempland’ looking towards Alston Hall Cottage. (November 2022)


1840 Abraham Cook Farming plots from the Tithe Map      Open Street Map.(2022)

Blue stars indicate the location of other plots of land farmed by Abraham Cook in 1840.


IMG_1416 Area of developed land along the old Kirton Road  formerly farmed by Abraham Cook in 1840.(2022)


IMG_1443 Part of developed land farmed by Abraham Cook in 1840 which  went from the corner of Mill Lane to the start of Grimston Lane and then…

0B802A4B-F2CE-487C-A9B0-B5FCD2A09513_1_105_c   … also along Mill Lane towards Mill Close. (2022)


The winter of 1838

IMG_1414 The bridleway above Trimley Shore. (2018)

Why was there a  necessity to raise subscriptions to enhance the Poors Land monies at the start of 1838?  The year began in a clement manner with parts of Great Britain experiencing unseasonably warm weather which allowed pear trees to blossom in Northallerton and full-blown primroses to gather  in Smalesbury[11], although this was not mirrored in the capital. But temperatures quickly changed and by about the 9th January the thermometer was plummeting. 1838 was to prove the coldest winter month for many years. Nowhere was exempt from the bitter chill. The Ipswich Journal reported:

“…For several nights the thermometer has stood as low as 20, and in the nights of the 11th at 13, on the 19th at 10 and on the 20th (Saturday) at 2 Fahrenheit[12]…”

and continued,

“…All the great thoroughfares and roads in the neighbourhood present solid beds of ice…the Orwell…has been so blocked with ice as in great measure to preclude the passage of our sea-borne vessels at the public quays…The inhabitants of the suburbs have been amused with the novel exhibition of sledges drawn by horses, a la tandem… It is gratifying to note the Poor have not been altogether forgotten…”[13]

 By  any measure it was deemed to be cold.  The article continues:

“…in the majority of the parishes..(in Ipswich)… town subscriptions have been raised for their relief: but there is a large field for the exercise of charity…those who  have experienced benefit from the reduction of the parochial rate under the operation of the Poor Law Act, now to step forward, and by their charitable actions, evince an unfeigned sympathy for their suffering brethren.”[14]

For the indigent poor of Trimley St. Martin, entering the Workhouse was almost unthinkable for explanation  pithily reported  in ‘The Times’ when they reprinted a short article previously published in ‘The Lincoln Herald’.

Screenshot 2022-12-13 at 18.12.30.jpeg

The Times. 30th January 1838

However, Trimley St. Martin’s villagers may have fared marginally better than others because of the existing Poors Charity. However, when the Enclosure Act of 1805 was drawn up, the population was possibly about  three hundred people[15] and any Monies raised from the Poors Land was expected to supply  adequate fuel provision during the  harshest Winter months. Perhaps it did. However, by 1838 the population was growing; the Census of 1841 records  the names of 486 people in Trimley St. Martin and Stratton Hall. The system  depended upon the rent  from the Poors Land being paid to the Trustees which was chaired by the Rector of the Parish. Fuel was then purchased and distributed to the Poor, ‘at Christmas’. The rental for 1837 was £6: clearly not enough to provide fuel for the names and families of the sixty four people enumerated on the list compiled in January 1838; this would have been deemed an  appropriate time of year to dispense charity.

In the ordinary course of events, work in January comprised:

“Drainage operations; carriage of manure to heaps in fields, also of lime and marl, also of grain to market; threshing grain for sale; ploughing, probably the last of the stubbles for root crops; applying clay and marls, carrying lime, &c.; attendance on cattle and sheep; road and fence mending, top-dressing pastures”[16]

Not many of those tasks could be carried out when the ground was frozen solid. For the majority of agricultural labourers, no work meant weekly wages stopped. Wages had remained static or moved downwards since the French Wars  One source[17] has cited 6/- (Six shillings) or in decimalised coinage, 30p, for an agricultural worker per week in Suffolk around this  period; £1 translates into approximately  £22.59 in today’s money[18] and slightly over a third of that would be approximately £7.50.  It doesn’t require exactitude to establish pay was poor. At the time of the 1851 Census the average wage for agricultural workers in Suffolk was 7/- , or seven shillings.

IMG_1432  View from Sleighton Hill towards High Hill Cottages. 2018

The total number of agricultural workers  recorded in the Trimley St. Martin 1841 Census equals ninety one. The names on the list totals sixty four. (Ten of these people are clearly identified as widows one of whom, Widow Jennings, died later in August 1838.) The households those names represent  total one hundred and ninety one people; approximately half the village population.  Without exception all of the  named men were  recorded as agricultural labourers in the 1841 Census. In the absence of paid work during these frozen days the hardship felt by those families would have been  considerable.  Fuel poverty would have been wide spread and outside the economic means of labouring families. Coal was approximately 20/- or £1[19]  per ton in September 1837[20]: the Subscribers purchased coal at £1-2-0 or one pound two shillings a ton.  In  2022 values, a ton of coal equals about forty or forty one  twenty five kilogram bags.  The image below indicates a  limited range of coal prices in 1837:

Screenshot 2022-12-13 at 17.50.56

  • Morning Advertiser 30 September 183

Additional finance was raised from the subscribers named in Appendix 2. They included the more affluent members of Trimley St. Martin. The Rev. Charles Waller was the stipendiary Curate for  Trimley St. Martin; John Cockle[21] was a local surgeon who held 18 parcels of land in Kirton and Trimley St. Martin.; Edwin Julian[22] was the largest landholder and owner in the Colneis Hundred, farming 192 parcels of land in Trimley St. Martin, Trimley St. Mary and Walton although he was not Lord of the Manor. (The Lord of the Manor at this time this was  Alexander Hamilton, 10th Duke of Hamilton, who died 18th August 1852.)  All three of these men were significant in their influence and contribution to local village society but  Julian was the greatest employer of agricultural labourers.

The names  of the Poor were drawn up by four farmers who were also financial subscribers, namely: Mr. George Cobbold [23]; Mr. William Last; Mr. John Williams; Mr. William Everitt.  William Last had taken over Grimston Hall following the death of Samuel Ralph, sometime after 1824. William Everitt had recently inherited his father’s estate. The Everitts and Lasts were related by marriage and William Last’s respectability was unimpeachable. He was the Churchwarden at this time. John Williams[24] farmed out of Morston Hall until  22nd April 1863 when he died. His land holdings at the time of the 1861 Census were 900 acres[25].  He emerges as a strong and respectable influencer in the village.


Morston Hall John Williams d 1863 Portrait of John Williams of Morston Hall. Artist unknown. 

Courtesy of  Spencer Williams, Great, Great  Grandson of John Williams.

Once the funds were collected, the coal was ordered and then distributed to the names on the list. The cost for all materials and labour amounted to £14/12/- or fourteen pounds, twelve shillings. In 2022 terms this equals  approximately £1,237 although this is not an accurate amount of money.

There is one interesting but unclear note against the name  of Mrs. Glandfield which says ‘Bushels  2.5.’  Mrs. Anna Glandfield, of ‘independent means’[26], was the occupant of one of the wooden houses during the early part of the nineteenth century and until her death in 1840. The building  continues to house a bread oven[27]   It is a reasonable assumption this was one and the same Anna Glandfield mentioned on the list. It may be possible the comment related to bushels of flour which might  be made into bread for the same recipients of the coal.  The amount of coal provided to each individual  would not  been enough to heat an oven to a sufficient temperature for baking bread, if indeed the recipients had one.  Their fuel would have been carefully conserved. The 1841 Census records the existence of a Shopkeeper in Trimley St. Martin but not a Baker and this adds weight to the possibility Anna Glandfield was baking bread for many people.

The severe weather carried on in to February.  The Burial Register for Trimley St. Martin[28] records two deaths for January and February:  Edward Gorham, aged 63 on 28th January 1838  and  Daniel  Cowie, aged 81 on 4th February 1838. Daniel was not one of the people included on the List and we have no evidence concerning  the cause of death, although sub-zero temperatures can only have been detrimental to his health Edward may well have been the oldest inhabitant in the village at the time and  unusual In reaching such an advanced age. Again, cause of death is unknown.

The document detailing the names and commitments of many villagers was clearly kept and used on subsequent occasion as may be witnessed by the crossings out and names of people with, “Dead” written across them. How many years it remained in use is difficult to guage but certainly more than one.

Reviewing all of the above details and information provided a small but fascinating insight into the village at the start of the Victorian age.  It was very much a rural economy; hardship was  a way of life. The 1841 Census provided several instances of Grandparents taking in one of their grandchildren, presumably to ease the cost upon the parents’ larger family as in the case of Robert and Rebecca Topple. The 1841 Census records their nine year old grandson James Topple living with them. Villagers were interwoven in their familial relationships and dependency upon one another. The counterpoint and enhancer of this reciprocal care were the larger farmers of the Village who took their responsibilities towards their labourers seriously. Individual employers submitted the names of those in their employment or possibly, in the case of the Widows, former employees.

In the absence of any central government support such local benefactors became the first line of support.  They were all Ratepayers and therefore had the vote; in a hierarchical society they took it upon themselves to respond to the needs of the Poor responsibly and realistically. It was part of their moral code and more importantly, they were informed by the perception it was part of their Christian duty. Each individual farmer and/or subscriber was effectively a pater familias to their employees,  voluntarily managing their  personal financial resources as best they could towards the needy of the Parish. They were sincere in their attempts to alleviate the suffering of the needy, sharing a mutual characteristic of concern towards their employees.


Perhaps unsurprisingly this research  has a resonance to how we live now. As we enter the Winter season this December 2022, a series of hardships face too many people in the United Kingdom.  Energy prices, food prices, fuel and heating cost,  homes and mortgage security, travel costs, childhood poverty:  all contrive and combine to create misery and worry.  Not to mention the homeless or stateless people  who live amongst us and have no recourse to the public purse.  Assumptions about people’s digital literacy skills[29]  has not helped those who do not have access to the Internet (or indeed, do  not follow national news). In 2018 it was estimated that 10% of the adult population had never accessed online information, possibly through age or financial constraints. This figure is in decline but accessibility does not equal understanding.

If you know anyone who  is struggling in the harsh winter of 2022, it may be the one or some following are of some small use. Or if you would like to support a local charity on a regular but painless basis,  500 Suffolk Reasons welcomes regular contributions at as little as £1 a week. You can find out more about it here:

What is available?

Over and above individual sources of help, Citizens Advice is there for everyone. They can help in interpreting documents, forms and correspondence and are the best agency available. At the time of writing, the offices cannot accommodate Drop-in clients but will respond quickly to any phone calls. Citizens Advice can also help you If you need help accessing Local Welfare Assistance, which is done entirely online:

In East Suffolk there are three  Citizens Advice  offices accessible through  one simple  telephone number:

Telephone: 0808 278 7866

Felixstowe:  2 – 6 Orwell Road, Felixstowe, IP11 7HD

Leiston:  14 Colonial House, Station Road, IP16 4JD

Lowestoft:  St Margaret’s House, Gordon Road, Lowestoft, NR32 1JQ

Citizens Advice are also able to assist with Pay-as-you-go Fuel Cards, although not for British Gas Customers who are not part of the scheme

Warm Spaces – where?

Churches in Felixstowe and district are offering warm welcomes:

Warm Spaces

Trimley Methodist Church in Mill Lane, Trimley St. Martin are also contributing to the warm space bank.

Warm Meths

Felixstowe Library

Libraries  have always been free public spaces in addition to their core business as information providers, lending books and other resources as well as just being open for everyone. In addition, Felixstowe Library  also offer: Warm Space; free menstrual products; charging sockets. Opening hours:

Monday            10.00 – 16.00

Tuesday           09.00 – 17.30

Wednesday      09.00 – 19.30

Thursday          09.00 – 17.30

Friday               09.00 – 17.30

Saturday          09.00 – 17.00

Sunday            10.00 –  16.00


Food Banks:

Other than the Basic Community Pop-up Shop, most food banks require a referral from Citizens Advice.

Basic Community Pop-up Shop. Welcome Hall , Trimley St. Mary Every Monday 11.a.m.

NO referral necessary. Shopping costs £2 per bag.

The Bus Shelter Shop  79 Faulkener’s Way, Trimley St Martin, Trimley St Mary, Felixstowe IP11 0FE

Salvation Army  Cobbold Rd, Felixstowe IP11 7EL


If you have housing issues, Citizens Advice can help you.

Government support concerning  energy bills has been widely reported  but will finish in March. You can read more here:


I hope you have found this lengthy Blog interesting. You can read more about some of the people mentioned in this article at:

If you have any comments or would like to be part of this Trimley St. Martin project, please contact me at:

LR  14/12/2022


Appendix 1

The following are the transcribed list of people  who have received Coals  in January 1838 and possibly in 1839. They have been placed in alphabetical order for ease of reference, although this was not the case on the original document. Mentions of entry into the Poor House at Nacton are not part of the original document but added by myself.

Mr. Cobbold’s List

Henry Alexander & sons

W Alexander

Widow Calver

Jno Durrant

Ellis F?

Jno Farthing

 Jas Fenn

Widow Fenn (with son)

Stephen Glandfield

Edward Gorham (Late)

Stephen  Gorham

Jno Head

Ambrose Jennings

Jas Jennings

Jno Jennings

Jno Lancaster

Tho. Jennings

Widow Jennings  Dead

Jno Noble

Widow Plant

W Redgrift



Mr William’s List

Widow A?

Robert Austin

  1. Brown
  2. Collins

Jno. Ellis

  1. Farrow

Jno. Foulger

Wm. Franks

Jno. Gorham

  1. Hockley

Wm. Jennings

  1. Knight

Frank Lewis

Widow Lewis  Dead

Jerry Rushbrooke                     Occupant of the Poor House  in 1814  aged 12 ½

Harry Plant                               Occupant of the Poor House in  1811, aged 22

Thos. Rushbrook                      Occupant of the Poor House in 1814, aged 5½

Robert Topple

Jno. Warner


Mr Last’s List


Widow Alexander

Widow Butler (?)

Widow  B?

  1. Clayton

Widow Collins

Wm. Cooper                             Occupant of the Poor House in 1812. Discharged into an apprenticeship.

Robt. Farthing

Jno. Fenn                                 Occupant of the Poor House in 1799 – 1801 aged 7 – 9

and again, in1807 for six months.  Discharged into an apprenticeship.

Thos. Finch

  1. Gorham

Widow Hewitt

Henry Hockley

Wm. Hockley

  1. Jennings

Thos. Knights

Jas. Markham

Jas. ?




Mr Everitt’s List


Jno. Collins

Jas. Gorham                             Occupant of the Poor House in 1823 for three months.

Discharged into an apprenticeship.

Jas. Hockley

Jas. Lancaster

Jno. Versey

Mrs. Glandfield  ?



List of Persons not allowed

H Smith

Jno. Jordan

Jno. Newman

H  ?

Jno. Lancaster

Jas. Fenn

Geo. Jennings

Nat. Plant

Ben. Scarlett

Henry Alexander


Appendix 2

List of the Subscribers              £  s  d   pd.

Rev. Charles Waller                 2. 2. 0

Mr.  Ed. Julian                          1. 0. 0

Mr.  Geo. Cobbold                    1. 0. 0

Mr.  Jno.  Williams                   1. 0. 0

Mr.  Jno. Cockle                        1. 0. 0

Mr. Wm  Everitt                       –  10. 0

Mr. Wm Last                             –  15. 0

Amount of subscriptions          7.  7. 0

To balance of last years subs    0. 15. 0

To rent of Abram Cook              6. 0. 0

14.2. 0



By cash to balance                   14.12.6


William Last      Churchwarden



[1] FC46/G2/1 List of persons who have received coals, by a subscription raised in the parish in addition to rent received of Abraham Cook, with list of subscribers.  1838   Suffolk Archives, The Hold, 131 Fore Street, Ipswich.

[1a] ADA10/C/B/1/1: Register of inmates, Nacton House ((1758)-1836). Suffolk Archives, The Hold, 131 Fore Street, Ipswich.

[2] A Topographical Dictionary of England. S Lewis, London, 1848. Viewable on The Internet Archive:






[8] London Courier and Evening Gazette 27 September 1837. P.1. column 4.


[9] You can read more about the Poors Land by following this link:


[11] The Season.- The following extracts from the provincial papers received yesterday as to the mildness of the season. Wedensday January 10th 1838. Issue 16622 Page 7  Times Newspapers.

[12]  These figures convert  as follows:  20°Fahrenheit  = -6.6° Celsius; 13° Fahrenheit  = -10.5° Celsius;  12° Fahrenheit = -11.1° Celsius;  2° Fahrenheit= -16.6° Celsius.

[13] The Ipswich Journal 27th January 1838.

[14] Ibid.

[15] The 1801 census cites a total population of 256 and the 1811 census,  319.

[16] Morton, John Chalmers Handbook of Farm Labour 1861

[17] Hasbach, W.     A History of the English Agricultural Labourer   1908 (English Translation)


[19] Bank of England inflation calculator.

£1 is equivalent to  £87.57 in 2022 monetary terms.

[20] The Morning Advertiser. 30th September 1837. Page 4, Column 4

[21] See also:

[22] Edwin Julian will be the subject of a future blog.

[23] An image of Mr. George Cobbold may be found here:

[24]  John was the third son of John Williams of Flemings Hall.  He was born on 24th June 1775 at Beddingfield.  He married Rebecca Pettit of Winston at Trimley St Mary on 10th October 1807 and died at Morston Hall on 22nd April 1863.

[25] RG 9; Piece: 1168; Folio: 74; Page: 27; GSU roll: 542767

[26]  As recorded in the 1841 Census for Trimley St. Martin: Class: H)107; Piece: 1021; Book: 8; Civil Parish: St Martin Trimley: Suffolk; Enumeration District: 15; Folio: 5; Page:2; Line: 11; GUS Roll: 474637

[27] The information relating to the existence of the bread oven is courtesy of the current occupant.

[28] FC46/D1/9: Register of burials (1813-1910)







4 thoughts on “Winter, 1838

  1. Fascinating read Liz.Sadly it illustrates once again how the ruling class system in this country has been harsh and punitive on the general populace. That ruling class system continues to this day and is epitomised by the current debacle that it is the political system and Westminster. The use and control of energy has been utilised to line the pockets of this ruling class at the expense of consumers and of course in such a situation the lower income groups in the economy are hit the hardest. It was particularly ironic that coal prices were deliberately inflated for this purpose as that is exactly what is happening today with the energy providers who are blatantly allowed to profiteer with no intervention by Government other than to use tax payers money to keep energy providers profits at this level. There is no shortage of oil supply and the Ukraine conflict is the excuse being used for the hike in prices many sectors at present. The other aspect of this excellent look at this regions history is its significance as a food producing region. We are heading towards the existential threat of a global food supply shortage yet this ruling class government have deemed it acceptable to destroy much of that irreplaceable food producing land across the country to appease developers who have donated to getting them into power. This is particularly highlighted by the obscene level of large estate housing in this area and the lack of adequate infrastructure which has already claimed one life at the roundabout construction at Walton Gate, One other point that was highlighted in your post Liz was the abolition of the Slavery Act and that compensation was paid to slave owner families from taxpayer funds.I heard somewhere that those families have still been receiving that compensation or that it has only recently creased.Do you know if that is a factual statement ?


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